Risk and Severity of Hospital-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients Taking Pump Inhibitors.

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Risk and Severity of Hospital-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients Taking Pump Inhibitors.

Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Jul 25;

Authors: Lewis PO, Litchfield JM, Tharp JL, Garcia RM, Pourmorteza MP, Reddy CM

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates and severity of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) versus those not taking PPIs.
DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study.
SETTING: Tertiary community hospital with a teaching service.
PATIENTS: A total of 41,663 patients with CDI who were hospitalized between January 2013 and May 2014; of those, 17,471 patients (41.9%) had received at least one dose of a PPI (PPI group), and 24,192 patients (58.1%) had no PPI exposure (control group).
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 348 patients had CDI during the study period, with 269 cases present on admission. Hospital-acquired CDI was defined as CDI diagnosis occurring on or after the third calendar day of admission. After excluding those patients with CDI on admission, 65 (0.38%) of 17,302 patients later developed CDI in the hospital in the PPI group compared with only 14 (0.058%) of 24,092 patients in the control group. Of these patients, 36 patients (0.21%) in the PPI group met the definition of severe CDI compared with 8 (0.03%) in the control group. This demonstrated an unadjusted relative risk (RR) of 6.46 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.63-11.51, p<0.0001) of developing hospital-acquired CDI and an unadjusted RR of 6.27 (95% CI 2.91-13.48, p<0.0001) of developing severe CDI while taking a PPI. When evaluating only patients who developed severe-complicated CDI, there were 22 cases in the PPI group and 2 cases in the control group, demonstrating an unadjusted RR of 15.3 (95% CI 3.6-65.13, p=0.0002) of developing severe-complicated CDI. Confounding variables were similar between groups.
CONCLUSION: PPI use was associated with an increase in both the rate and severity of hospital-acquired CDI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 27455386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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