Systematic review: periprocedural hydration in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Jul 22;
Authors: Smeets XJ, da Costa DW, Besselink MG, Bruno MJ, Fockens P, Mulder CJ, van der Hulst RW, Vleggaar FP, Timmer R, Drenth JP, van Geenen EJ
BACKGROUND: With an overall incidence of 3.5%, pancreatitis is the most frequent complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Periprocedural hydration may prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis by maintaining pancreatic microperfusion, thereby inhibiting the pancreatic inflammatory response. However, the evidence for periprocedural hydration as a preventive measure is unclear.
AIM: To conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence regarding periprocedural hydration as a preventive measure for post-ERCP pancreatitis.
METHODS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases and adhered to the PRISMA guidelines. We included studies addressing periprocedural hydration as a preventive measure to reduce frequency and severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Study quality was assessed by using the MINORS and Cochrane Collaboration's tool.
RESULTS: Six studies with a total of 1102 patients were included. Two randomised controlled trials reported a decreased incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis after hydration: 0% vs. 17% (P = 0.016) and 5.3% vs. 22.7% (P = 0.002). A third trial and two case-controls studies did not report significant differences. Two retrospective studies found that patients with mild post-ERCP pancreatitis had received significantly more fluids during (mean 940 mL vs. 810 mL; P = 0.031) or after ERCP (median 2834 mL vs. 2044 mL; P < 0.02) compared to patients with moderate/severe disease. Adverse events of periprocedural hydration were not reported in any of the included studies. The different methodologies of the included studies precluded a formal data synthesis.
CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence to suggest that hydration affords protection against post-ERCP pancreatitis, but study heterogeneity precludes firm conclusions. Adequately powered randomised trials are needed to evaluate the preventive effect of periprocedural hydration.
PMID: 27444408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]