Prevalence and Prognosis of Hyperkalemia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Am J Med. 2016 Apr 6;
Authors: Grodzinsky A, Goyal A, Gosch K, McCullough PA, Fonarow GC, Mebazaa A, Masoudi FA, Spertus JA, Palmer BF, Kosiborod M
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is common and potentially dangerous in hospitalized patients; its contemporary prevalence and prognostic importance following acute myocardial infarction are not well described.
METHODS: In 38,689 consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients from the Cerner HealthFacts database, we evaluated the association between maximum in-hospital potassium levels (max K) and in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified by dialysis status, and grouped by max K as follows: <5 mEq/L, 5-<5.5 mEq/L, 5.5-<6.0 mEq/L, 6.0-<6.5 mEq/L, and ≥ 6.5 mEq/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple patient and site characteristics. The relationship between number of hyperkalemic values and in-hospital mortality was also evaluated.
RESULTS: Of 38,689 acute myocardial infarction patients, 886 were on dialysis. The rate of hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.0 mEq/L) was 22.6% in non-dialysis and 66.8% in dialysis patients. Moderate-severe hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 9.8% of patients. There was a steep increase in mortality with higher max K levels. In-hospital mortality exceeded 15% once max K ≥5.5 mEq/L regardless of dialysis status. The relationship between higher max K and increased mortality risk persisted after multivariable adjustment. In addition, patients with greater number of hyperkalemic values (vs. a single value) experienced higher in-hospital mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Hyperkalemia is common in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Higher max K levels and number of hyperkalemic events are associated with a steep mortality increase; with higher risks for adverse outcomes observed even at mild levels of hyperkalemia. Whether more intensive management of hyperkalemia may improve outcomes in acute myocardial infarction patients merits further study.
PMID: 27060233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]