Extensive antibiotic prescription rate among hospitalized patients in Uganda: but with frequent missed-dose days.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Mar 5;
Authors: Kiguba R, Karamagi C, Bird SM
OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns of systemic antibiotic use and missed-dose days and detail the prescription, dispensing and administration of frequently used hospital-initiated antibiotics among Ugandan inpatients.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of consented adult inpatients admitted on the medical and gynaecological wards of the 1790 bed Mulago National Referral Hospital.
RESULTS: Overall, 79% (603/762; 95% CI: 76%-82%) of inpatients received at least one antibiotic during hospitalization while 39% (300/762; 95% CI: 36%-43%) had used at least one antibiotic in the 4 weeks pre-admission; 1985 antibiotic DDDs, half administered parenterally, were consumed in 3741 inpatient-days. Two-fifths of inpatients who received at least one of the five frequently used hospital-initiated antibiotics (ceftriaxone, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and azithromycin) missed at least one antibiotic dose-day (44%, 243/558). The per-day risk of missed antibiotic administration was greatest on day 1: ceftriaxone (36%, 143/398), metronidazole (27%, 67/245), ciprofloxacin (34%, 39/114) and all inpatients who missed at least one dose-day of prescribed amoxicillin and azithromycin. Most patients received fewer doses than were prescribed: ceftriaxone (74%, 273/371), ciprofloxacin (90%, 94/105) and metronidazole (97%, 222/230). Of prescribed doses, only 62% of ceftriaxone doses (1178/1895), 35% of ciprofloxacin doses (396/1130) and 27% of metronidazole doses (1043/3862) were administered. Seven percent (13/188) of patients on intravenous metronidazole and 6% (5/87) on intravenous ciprofloxacin switched to oral route.
CONCLUSIONS: High rates of antibiotic use both pre-admission and during hospitalization were observed, with low parenteral/oral switch of hospital-initiated antibiotics. Underadministration of prescribed antibiotics was common, especially on the day of prescription, risking loss of efficacy and antibiotic resistance.
PMID: 26945712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]