Clinical management of the uraemic syndrome in chronic kidney disease.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016 Mar 2;
Authors: Vanholder R, Fouque D, Glorieux G, Heine GH, Kanbay M, Mallamaci F, Massy ZA, Ortiz A, Rossignol P, Wiecek A, Zoccali C, London GM, European Renal Association European Dialysis, Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) European Renal, Cardiovascular Medicine (EURECA-m) working group
The clinical picture of the uraemic syndrome is a complex amalgam of accelerated ageing and organ dysfunction, which progress in parallel to chronic kidney disease. The uraemic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic bone disease, inflammation, protein energy wasting, intestinal dysbiosis, anaemia, and neurological and endocrine dysfunction. In this Review, we summarise specific, modern management options for the uraemic syndrome in chronic kidney disease. Although large randomised controlled trials are scarce, based on data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies, as well as pathophysiological reasoning, a therapeutic algorithm can be developed for this complex and multifactorial condition, with interventions targeting several modifiable factors simultaneously.
PMID: 26948372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]