Significance of ST-segment deviation in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and negative T waves.
Cardiol J. 2015;22(5):583-9
Authors: Zhan ZQ, Wang CQ, Wang ZX, Nikus KC, Baranchuk A, Yuan RX, Anselm DD, Pérez-Riera AR, Yang B
BACKGROUND: Common electrocardiogram (ECG) manifestations in acute pulmonary em-bolism (APE) include ST-segment deviation (STDV) along with negative T-waves (NTW). STDV could occur in 3 typical ischemic patterns: (i) the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial ischemic pattern; (ii) the right ventricular (RV) transmural ischemic pattern; and (iii) the LV subendocardial plus RV transmural ischemic pattern. The purpose of this study was to evalu-ate the relationship of STDV and adverse clinical outcomes and to identify the relationship of relatively normal ECG and favorable clinical outcomes.
METHODS: Retrospective analysis of electronic charts in APE patients was performed in a tertiary hospital. ECGs on admission were obtained and classified as with or without STDV. Adverse clinical outcomes were defined as need to intensify therapy and 30-day mortality. Relatively normal ECG was defined as without any STDV, abnormal QRS morphology in lead V1 and S1Q3T3.
RESULTS: From a total of 210 patients with NTW, 131 had STDV ≥ 0.1 mV, while 79 did not. Patients with STDV had worse evolution: higher incidence of dyspnea, hypotension, cardiogen-ic shock, intensification of therapy, and death compared to patients without STDV (p = 0.001 for each variable). The majority (89%) of the patients with STDV presented with 1 of the 3 typical ischemic ECG patterns. LV subendocardial ischemic pattern (OR = 4.963, p = 0.004), RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 3.128, p = 0.021) and LV subendocardial plus RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 3.036, p = 0.017) independently predicted the need to intensify therapy. RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 4.227, p = 0.031) and LV subendocardial plus RV transmural ischemic pattern (OR = 4.022, p = 0.032) independently predicted 30-day mortality. Compared to the patients with abnormal ECG, the patients with relatively normal ECG had a significant lower incidence of death (0% vs. 16%; p = 0.001) and need to intensify therapy during hospitalization (6% vs. 30%; p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic ECG patterns are common ECG manifestations of APE and predict worse evolution and 30-day mortality. Additionally, relatively normal ECGs may associate with favorable clinical outcomes.
PMID: 26004940 [PubMed - in process]