Novel approach to inpatient glucometric monitoring and variability in a community hospital setting.
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015 Mar;9(2):246-56
Authors: Koziol J, Johnson K, Brenner K, Fortmann A, Morrisey R, Philis-Tsimikas A
Hyperglycemia and glucose variability in the hospital environment are associated with higher rates of complications, longer lengths of stay, and mortality. Standardized metrics are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of glucose management interventions. Glucometric data were collected from 2024 inpatients in a San Diego hospital between 2009 and 2011. As a complementary measure of glucose control, individual patient excursion rates were calculated using counts of distinct excursions from normal to critical glucose ranges >180 or <70 mg/dL. Prediction models for excursion rates were devised, based on patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients were predominantly male (51.2%), Caucasian (86.0%), and elderly (median age 72 years). Obesity was prevalent: 32% were overweight and 33% were obese. Median length of hospitalization was 5.0 days (range, 0.8-139.4 days). Unadjusted rate of excursions >180 mg/dL was 0.456 per 24 hours. The proportion of zero excursions decreased as severity of illness decreased, but was unrelated to age. Excursion rates were slightly smaller for major and extreme severity of illness compared to mild or moderate illness severity. Excursion rates did not vary in a monotone fashion with age, although the general pattern reflected a reduction in excursion rates from the first age quartile (19 to 59) through the last age quartile (83 to 100). Using the Akaike information criterion, zero-inflated negative binomial models were identified as appropriate for analyzing glucose excursion rates. Systematic approaches to glucose reporting and management in the hospital environment offer "windows of opportunity" to improve diabetes care.
PMID: 25539653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]