Older Adult Inpatient Falls in Acute Care Hospitals: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Environmental Factors.
J Gerontol Nurs. 2015 Jul;41(7):29-43; quiz 44-5
Authors: Zhao YL, Kim H
The current integrative literature review of 23 studies aimed to identify multidimensional risk factors of falls among older adult patients in acute care hospitals. The incidence rate of fall-related injuries ranged from 6.8% to 72.1%. Advanced age was a major intrinsic risk factor, whereas being a patient in a geriatric unit was a significant extrinsic factor for inpatient falls and fall-related injuries based on statistical significance obtained from quantitative data analyses. Other critical risk factors were: (a) cognitive impairment; (b) impaired mobility; (c) prolonged length of hospital stay; and (d) fall history. Environmental/situational factors, such as patient ambulation and fall locations, also contributed to inpatient falls. In clinical practice, nurses need to know who are the most vulnerable patients in the hospital and develop comprehensive interventions to decrease intrinsic, extrinsic, and environmental risk factors. Prospective mixed-methods studies are needed to examine psychosocial factors and consequences of falls.
PMID: 26126026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]