The Negative Prognostic Impact of a First Ever Episode of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Cirrhosis and Ascites.
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Nov-Dec;49(10):858-65
Authors: Ra G, Tsien C, Renner EL, Wong FS
BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of the first ever episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) on patient outcomes is not well described. Our aim was to compare the clinical outcomes of cirrhotic patients with ascites, and with or without a first episode of SBP.
METHODS: Consecutive patients with cirrhosis and ascites were prospectively enrolled. Demographics, liver and renal function, and hemodynamics were documented at baseline, at resolution of SBP, and thereafter at 4 monthly intervals for 12 months. Complications of cirrhosis and survival were noted.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine cirrhotic patients with a first ever episode of SBP (group A) and 123 control patients slightly younger but similar in gender who never had SBP (group B) were enrolled. At SBP diagnosis, group A had worse liver and renal function (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease : 21.1±10.6 vs. 14.4±5.0), lower serum sodium concentrations, and a more hyperdynamic circulation compared with group B (all P<0.001). SBP resolution resulted in improvement in all measures to baseline levels. During follow-up, group A required more frequent hospital admissions than group B (58% vs. 43%), developed more cirrhotic complications, including further SBP (31% vs. 3%*), hyponatremia (12% vs. 0.8%*), acute kidney injury (50% vs. 23%*), hepatorenal syndrome type 1 (46% vs. 7%*), liver transplantation (62% vs. 30%*), and had a worse overall 1-year survival (38% vs. 70%*) (*P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: A first SBP episode is commonly followed by multiple complications, and overall worse prognosis. Consideration should be given to assess cirrhotic patients for liver transplant after the first episode of SBP.
PMID: 25811112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]