Medications and Patient Characteristics Associated With Falling in the Hospital.
J Patient Saf. 2015 Mar 16;
Authors: O'Neil CA, Krauss MJ, Bettale J, Kessels A, Costantinou E, Dunagan WC, Fraser VJ
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate specific medications and patient characteristics as risk factors of falling in the hospital.
METHODS: This is a case-control study comparing demographic, health, mobility, and medication data for 228 patients who fell between June 29, 2007, and November 14, 2007, at a large tertiary care hospital and 690 randomly selected control patients. Logistic regression was used to identify fall risk factors.
RESULTS: Independent risk factors of falling included history of falls (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-4.2); needing an assistive device (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.5-6.8) or person assistance (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3) to ambulate; being underweight (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7) or obese (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5); confusion (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-4.0); dizziness (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3); incontinence (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3); and an order for a hydantoin (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.0) or benzodiazepine anticonvulsant (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5-3.3), haloperidol (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.8), tricyclic antidepressant (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9), or insulin (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1). Female sex (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0), proton pump inhibitors (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9), and muscle relaxants (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7) were associated with lower risk for falling.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified medications and patient characteristics associated with increased risk for falling in the hospital. High-risk medications identified in this study may serve as targets for medication review or adjustment, which have been recommended as a component of multifaceted fall prevention programs.
PMID: 25782559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]