Emerging Issues in Gram-Negative Bacterial Resistance: An Update for the Practicing Clinician.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Mar;90(3):395-403
Authors: Vasoo S, Barreto JN, Tosh PK
The rapid and global spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in recent years has been unprecedented. Although resistant gram-positive infections have been concerning to clinicians, the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative infections has become the most pressing issue in bacterial resistance. Indiscriminate antimicrobial use in humans and animals coupled with increased global connectivity facilitated the transmission of gram-negative infections harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the 1990s. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, such as those containing Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases, have been the latest scourge since the late 1990s to 2000s. Besides β-lactam resistance, these gram-negative infections are often resistant to multiple drug classes, including fluoroquinolones, which are commonly used to treat community-onset infections. In certain geographic locales, these pathogens, which have been typically associated with health care-associated infections, are disseminating into the community, posing a significant dilemma for clinicians treating community-onset infections. In this Concise Review, we summarize emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance. We also review the current knowledge on the detection, treatment, and prevention of infection with these organisms, with a focus on the carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacilli. Finally, we discuss emerging therapies and areas that need further research and effort to stem the spread of antimicrobial resistance.
PMID: 25744116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]