The Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Oral Medications.
Ann Pharmacother. 2015 Feb 9;
Authors: Tran L, Zielinski A, Roach AH, Jende JA, Householder AM, Cole EE, Atway SA, Amornyard M, Accursi ML, Shieh SW, Thompson EE
OBJECTIVE: To review the oral and injectable pharmacologic treatment options for type 2 diabetes.
DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using PubMed electronic database for studies published in English between 1993 and September 2014. Search terms included diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes, and the individual name for each antidiabetic medication reviewed. In addition, manual searches were performed for cross-references from publications. Package inserts, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site, Institute for Safe Medication Practices Web site, American Diabetes Association Web site and scientific session poster presentations, and individual drug company Web pages were also reviewed.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: This review focused on information elucidated over the past 10 years to assist prescribers in choosing optimal therapy based on individual patient characteristics. Studies leading to the approval of or raising safety concerns for the antidiabetic medications reviewed in this article were included.
DATA SYNTHESIS: In the past 10 years, there have been 4 novel oral antidiabetic medication classes and 9 new injectable agents and insulin products approved by the FDA for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as well as new information regarding the safety and use of several older antidiabetic medication classes. The distinctions were reviewed for each individual agent, and a comparison was completed if there was more than one agent in a particular therapeutic class. Using current information available, select investigational agents in phase III trials or those with a pending new drug application were highlighted.
CONCLUSION: There are now 9 distinct oral pharmacologic classes and a variety of insulin and noninsulin injectable medications available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin remains the first-line treatment option for most patients. When considering options for alternative or additional treatment, prescribers must weigh the benefits and risks using individual patient characteristics.
PMID: 25667196 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]