Biomarkers in heart failure.
Int Heart J. 2014;55(6):474-81
Authors: Takeishi Y
Appropriate use of biomarkers is clinically important for identifying heart failure in its early stage, optimizing risk stratification, and managing patients. This article describes established and traditional biomarkers as well as novel biomarkers reflective of myocardial stress, myocardial damage, extracellular matrix, oxidative stress, inflammation, renal function, micro RNAs, and heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. This review focuses on the recent advances in cardiac and non-cardiac biomarkers of heart failure and their appropriate use in clinical practice.
PMID: 25341366 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]