Hypercalcemic crisis: A Clinical Review.
Am J Med. 2014 Oct 17;
Authors: Ahmad S, Kuraganti G, Steenkamp D
Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic perturbation. However, hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency, with little clinical scientific data to support therapeutic strategy. We review the relevant scientific English literature on the topic and review current management strategies after conducting a PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar search for articles published between 1930 and June 2014 using specific keywords: hypercalcemic crisis, hyperparathyroid crisis, parathyroid storm, severe primary hyperparathyroidism, acute hyperparathyroidism and severe hypercalcemia for articles pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment strategies. Despite extensive clinical experience, large and well-designed clinical studies to direct appropriate clinical care are lacking. Nonetheless, morbidity and mortality rates have dramatically declined since early series reported almost universal fatality. Improved outcomes can be attributed to modern diagnostic capabilities; leading to earlier diagnosis, along with the recognition that primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common etiology for hypercalcemic crisis. Hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency that portends excellent outcomes if rapid diagnosis, medical treatment and definitive surgical treatment are expedited.
PMID: 25447624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]