The clinical utility window for acute kidney injury biomarkers in the critically ill.
Crit Care. 2014 Nov 4;18(6):601
Authors: Ralib A, Pickering JW, Shaw GM, Than MP, George PM, Endre ZH
IntroductionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) biomarker utility depends on sample timing after the onset of renal injury. We compared biomarker performance on arrival in the emergency department (ED) with subsequent performance in the intensive care unit (ICU).MethodsUrinary and plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), and urinary Cystatin C (CysC), alkaline phosphatase, ¿-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT), ¿- and ¿-Glutamyl S-Transferase (GST), and albumin were measured on ED presentation, and at 0, 4, 8, and 16 hours, and days 2, 4 and 7 in the ICU in patients after cardiac arrest, sustained or profound hypotension or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. AKI was defined as plasma creatinine increase ¿26.5 ¿mol/l within 48 hours or ¿50% within 7 days.ResultsIn total, 45 of 77 patients developed AKI. Most AKI patients had elevated urinary NGAL, and plasma NGAL and CysC in the period 6 to 24 hours post presentation. Biomarker performance in the ICU was similar or better than when measured earlier in the ED. Plasma NGAL diagnosed AKI at all sampling times, urinary NGAL, plasma and urinary CysC up to 48 hours, GGT 4 to 12 hours, and ¿-GST 8 to 12 hours post insult. Thirty-one patients died or required dialysis. Peak 24-hour urinary NGAL and albumin independently predicted 30-day mortality and dialysis; odds ratios 2.87 (1.32 to 6.26), and 2.72 (1.14 to 6.48), respectively. Urinary NGAL improved risk prediction by 11% (IDIevent of 0.06 (0.002 to 0.19) and IDInon-event of 0.04 (0.002 to 0.12)).ConclusionEarly measurement in the ED has utility, but not better AKI diagnostic performance than later ICU measurement. Plasma NGAL diagnosed AKI at all time points. Urinary NGAL best predicted mortality or dialysis compared to other biomarkers.Trial registrationAustralian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610001012066. Registered 12 February 2010.
PMID: 25366893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]