Fulminant Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis After a Near-Drowning Accident in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report.
Ann Pharmacother. 2014 Jun 17;
Authors: Ratermann KL, Ereshefsky BJ, Fleishaker EL, Thornton AC, Buch KP, Martin CA
OBJECTIVE: To report on invasive aspergillosis infection in an immunocompetent adult after a near-drowning event, which allowed this pathogen to easily gain access to the human respiratory system and result in rapid, severe infection.
CASE SUMMARY: A 51-year-old female developed severe pneumonia after a near-drowning accident. Two days after admission, a bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and was positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. After a 30-day hospital course, multiple antifungals, and various routes of administration, the patient expired.
DISCUSSION:: Pneumonia is particularly common because of the aspiration of contaminated water. Whereas pneumococci, staphylococci, and Gram-negative bacteria are all common pathogens for this type of infection, fungi such as Aspergillus spp can also be involved and may be life threatening. Typically, these cases are reported in individuals with an immunodeficiency such as from receipt of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants, or lung transplants. Despite initiation of an appropriate empirical antifungal regimen, the rapid recovery of A fumigatus from pulmonary alveolar lavage and BAL samples as well as extremely elevated levels of galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D glucan may have indicated an invasive fungal infection (IFI).
CONCLUSION:: IFIs are uncommon in immunocompetent adults, but in the event of a near-drowning accident, environmental fungi can gain access to the human respiratory system and result in rapid, severe infection. Based on this case and the others described, it appears that near-drowning patients need an early initial evaluation for IFI.
PMID: 24939635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]