Pre-discharge risk stratification in unselected STEMI: is there a role for ST2 or its natural ligand IL-33 when compared with contemporary risk markers?
Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 1;167(5):2182-8
Authors: Dhillon OS, Narayan HK, Khan SQ, Kelly D, Quinn PA, Squire IB, Davies JE, Ng LL
BACKGROUND: Soluble ST2 is a marker of cellular stress and injury whose natural ligand is interleukin-33. We investigate, for the first time, the relationship of IL-33 and ST2 with death at 30-days, 1-year and beyond in unselected STEMI patients. We assess the incremental value they offer over GRACE score and NT-proBNP. Secondary endpoints were heart failure readmission and re-infarction.
METHODS: ST2 and IL-33 were measured in 677 patients 3-5 days after admission. Median follow-up was 587 (134-2818) days during which 101 (15%) patients died.
RESULTS: ST2 was higher in those who died when compared to event-free survivors (median [range] 1125 [123-15781] vs. 630 [59-11729] pg/ml, p<0.001) as was IL-33 (75 [5.4-17893] vs. 5.4 [5.4-16466] pg/mL, p=0.006). Multivariate Cox regression analysis reveals that elevated ST2 is associated with increased risk of mortality at 30-days (HR 9.34, p<0.001) and 1-year (HR 3.15, p=0.001). These relationships continued after further adjustment for GRACE-RS and NT-proBNP. Combining ST2 (c-statistic 0.82, p<0.001), GRACE-RS (0.82, p<0.001) and NT-proBNP (0.84, p<0.001) leads to a significant improvement in the c-statistic for 30-day mortality to 0.90 (p=0.01). IL-33 above 5.4 pg/ml was independently associated with increased mortality at 30-days (HR 4.16, p=0.007) and 1-year (HR 2.29, p=0.008) but, did not add incremental prognostic value over using GRACE-RS and NT-proBNP. The ratio IL-33/ST2 was not associated with events.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ST2 and IL-33 were both associated with increased mortality. ST2 demonstrated incremental value over contemporary risk markers but, IL-33 did not. ST2 has a potential role in risk stratification using a multi-marker approach.
PMID: 22835988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]