A randomized comparison of 1-h sodium bicarbonate hydration versus standard peri-procedural saline hydration in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computerized tomography.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014 Feb 27;
Authors: Kooiman J, Sijpkens YW, de Vries JP, Brulez HF, Hamming JF, van der Molen AJ, Aarts NJ, Cannegieter SC, Putter H, Swarts R, van den Hout WB, Rabelink TJ, Huisman MV
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend saline hydration for prophylaxis of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing intravenous contrast media-enhanced CT (CE-CT). The safety and efficacy of a brief hydration protocol using sodium bicarbonate in this population is unknown. We analysed whether 1-h sodium bicarbonate hydration prior to CE-CT is non-inferior to saline hydration prior to and after CE-CT in CKD patients.
METHODS: We performed an open-label multicentre randomized trial. Patients were randomized to 250 mL of 1.4% sodium bicarbonate hydration prior to CE-CT or 1000 mL of 0.9% saline hydration prior to and, once again, after CE-CT. Primary outcome was the relative increase in serum creatinine 48-96 h post-CE-CT. Secondary outcomes were incidence of CI-AKI [serum creatinine increase >25%/>44 µmol/L (0.5 mg/dL)], recovery of renal function, the need for dialysis and 2-month hospital costs.
RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy adult CKD patients undergoing CE-CT were randomized between 2010 and 2012, of whom 548 were included in the intention-to-treat population. Mean relative serum creatinine increase was 1.2% for sodium bicarbonate and 1.5% for saline (mean difference -0.3%; 95% confidence interval -2.7 to 2.1, P-value for non-inferiority <0.0001). CI-AKI occurred in 22 patients (4.1%); 8 (3.0%) randomized to sodium bicarbonate versus 14 (5.1%) to saline (P = 0.23). Renal function recovered in 75 and 69% of CI-AKI patients, respectively (P = 0.81). No patients developed a need for dialysis. Mean hydration costs per patient were €224 for the sodium bicarbonate and €683 for the saline regime (P < 0.001). Other healthcare costs were similar.
CONCLUSIONS: Short hydration with sodium bicarbonate prior to CE-CT was non-inferior to peri-procedural saline hydration with respect to renal safety and may result in healthcare savings. [Netherlands Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp), Nr 2149, date of registration 23 December 2009.].
PMID: 24578471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]