Skin and soft tissue infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 23;
Authors: Atkins BL, Gottlieb T
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissues infections (SSTIs) caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are underrecognized and difficult to treat. Controversies exist for optimal medical management and the role of surgery. Defining the epidemiology in the environment, in animals and in healthcare aids disease prevention. This review focuses on recent advances in epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostics and therapy.
RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing consumer appetite for cosmetic and body-modifying procedures (e.g. tattooing, mesotherapy, liposuction) has been associated with rises in sporadic cases and outbreaks of NTM SSTIs. In mainstream healthcare, recent epidemiological studies have helped to quantify the increased risk of NTM infection related to anti-tumour necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibody therapy. Cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children poses management dilemmas, but recent studies and resultant algorithms have simplified decision-making. Molecular studies have led to a better understanding of the epidemiology, therapy and course of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) that remains prevalent in many areas including sub-Saharan Africa and southeastern Australia. Apart from molecular methods, the widespread adoption of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry by routine laboratories has potential to simplify and expedite the laboratory identification of NTMs.
SUMMARY: An improved understanding of the epidemiology of NTM SSTIs indicates a need to apply effective infection control and ensure regulation of cosmetic and related procedures associated with nonsterile fluids. Broader access to newer diagnostic methods will continue to improve recognition of NTM disease. Along with a paucity of therapeutic agents, there is need for more reliable methods to assess susceptibility and selection of effective combination therapy.
PMID: 24464139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]