Pathophysiology and etiology of heart failure.
Cardiol Clin. 2014 Feb;32(1):9-19
Authors: Johnson FL
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that is heterogeneous in both pathophysiology and etiology. This article describes some of the common mechanisms underlying heart failure, and reviews common causes. Informative diagnostic testing is reviewed.
PMID: 24286575 [PubMed - in process]