Evaluation of patients with heart failure.
Cardiol Clin. 2014 Feb;32(1):47-62
Authors: Patarroyo-Aponte M, Colvin-Adams M
Heart failure is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in the United States, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. Prompt diagnosis may help decrease mortality, hospital stay, and costs related to treatment. A complete heart failure evaluation comprises a comprehensive history and physical examination, echocardiogram, and diagnostic tools that provide information regarding the etiology of heart failure, related complications, and prognosis in order to prescribe appropriate therapy, monitor response to therapy, and transition expeditiously to advanced therapies when needed. Emerging technologies and biomarkers may provide better risk stratification and more accurate determination of cause and progression.
PMID: 24286578 [PubMed - in process]