Safety of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in high-risk patients.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Dec;28 Suppl 4:118-22
Authors: Chang WK, Hsieh TY
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a minimally invasive procedure. However, failure to transilluminate the anterior wall of the stomach or visualize the indentation of the physician's finger represents the most frequent obstacles encountered by the endoscopist in safely completing PEG tube placement. We described several methods to safely assess PEG placement in high-risk patients. An abdominal plain film after gastric insufflated with 500 mL of air is obtained before PEG in patients. The body of the stomach near the angularis, equidistant from the greater and lesser curves, was defined as the optimal gastric puncture point. The location of the puncture points varied greatly, being situated over the right upper quadrant in 31% of patients, left upper in 59%, left lower in 5%, and right lower quadrant in 5% of patients. If there is any question of safe puncture site selection, safe track technique can be used to provide the information of depth and angle of the puncture tract. Computed tomography can provide detailed anatomy and orientation along the PEG tube and show detailed anatomical images along the PEG tract. Computed tomography-guided PEG tube placement is used when there is difficulty either insufflating the stomach, or the patients had previous surgery, or anatomical problems. Full assessment of the position of the stomach and adjacent organs prior to gastric puncture may help minimize the risk for potential complications and provide safety for the high-risk patients.
PMID: 24251717 [PubMed - in process]