Glucose control in non-critically ill inpatients with diabetes: towards closed-loop.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Nov 1;
Authors: Thabit H, Hovorka R
Inpatient glycaemic control remains an important issue due to the increasing number of patients with diabetes admitted to hospital. Morbidity and mortality in hospital are associated with poor glucose control, and cost of hospitalization is higher compared to non-diabetes patients. Guidelines for inpatient glycaemic control in the non-critical care setting have been published. Current recommendations include basal-bolus insulin therapy, regular glucose monitoring, as well as enhancing healthcare provider's role and knowledge. In spite of growing focus, implementation in practice is limited, mainly due to increasing workload burden on staff and fear of hypoglycaemia. Advances in healthcare technology may contribute to an improvement of inpatient diabetes care. Integration of glucose measurements with healthcare records and computerized glycaemic control protocols are currently being used in some institutions. Recent interests in continuous glucose monitoring have led to studies assessing its utilization in inpatients. Automation of glucose monitoring and insulin delivery may provide a safe and efficacious tool for hospital staff to manage inpatient hyperglycaemia, whilst reducing staff workload. This review summarizes the evidence on current approaches to managing inpatient glycaemic control; its utility and limitations. We conclude by discussing the evidence from feasibility studies to date, on the potential use of closed loop in the non-critical care setting and its implication for future studies.
PMID: 24267153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]