Management of primary group A streptococcal peritonitis: a systematic review.

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Management of primary group A streptococcal peritonitis: a systematic review.

Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2013 Apr;14(2):171-6

Authors: Westwood DA, Roberts RH

BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, there has been a global increase in the incidence and severity of group A streptococcal diseases. Primary group A streptococcal peritonitis is a life-threatening disease that may present in previously healthy individuals and progress to shock and severe organ dysfunction within a few hours. Our goal was to develop recommendations regarding the care of this group of patients.
METHODS: A systematic review of all adult cases of primary group A streptococcal peritonitis described in the English-language literature between January 1990 and December 2011.
RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with a median age at diagnosis of 38 years and a male:female ratio of 1:4 are described. Exploratory laparotomy was performed in 25 patients, 17 of whom had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT). Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage was performed in five patients, and, in two patients, no operative interventions were undertaken.
CONCLUSION: The worrisome increase in invasive group A streptococcal disease means that presentations of primary group A streptococcal peritonitis are likely to become more common. The challenge for the treating surgeon is to consider the possibility of this diagnosis. In the current era of multi-detector CT technology, secondary peritonitis from an intra-abdominal source may be excluded reliably using abdominal CT. Exploratory laparotomy is not mandated, and paracentesis is sufficient to confirm the diagnosis and avoid operative morbidity in patients with localized intra-peritoneal fluid collections. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage should be reserved for patients with widespread intra-peritoneal free fluid or whose condition deteriorates despite antibiotic therapy.

PMID: 23464678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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