Even Mild Hyperlactatemia is Associated with Increased Mortality in Critically Ill Patients.

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Even Mild Hyperlactatemia is Associated with Increased Mortality in Critically Ill Patients.

Crit Care. 2013 Sep 11;17(5):R197

Authors: Rishu AH, Khan R, Al-Dorzi H, Tamim HM, Al-Qahtani S, Al-Ghamdi G, Arabi YM

INTRODUCTION: The clinical significance of elevation of lactate levels within the reference range is not well studied. The objective of this study was to determine the best cutoff threshold for serum lactate within the reference range (0.01-2.00 mmol/L) that best discriminated between survivors and non-survivors of critical illness and to examine the association between relative hyperlactatemia (lactate above the identified threshold) and mortality.
METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to the medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care academic center. Youden index was calculated to identify the best lactate cutoff threshold that discriminated between survivors and non-survivors. Patients with lactate above the identified threshold were defined as having relative hyperlactatemia. Multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for baseline variables, was performed to determine the relationship between the above two ranges of lactate levels and mortality. In addition, test of interaction was performed to assess the effect of selected subgroups on the association between relative hyperlactatemia and hospital mortality.
RESULTS: During the study period, 2,157 patients were included in the study with mean lactate of 1.3+/-0.4 mmol/L, age of 55.1+/-20.3 years, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score of 22.1+/-8.2. Vasopressors were required in 42.4%. Lactate of 1.35 mmol/L was found to be the best cutoff threshold for the whole cohort. Relative hyperlactatemia was associated with increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.98) and ICU mortality (aOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.26-2.17) compared to lactate level of 0.01-1.35 mmol/L. This association was consistent among all examined subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS: Relative hyperlactatemia (lactate of 1.36-2.00 mmol/L) within the first 24 hours of ICU admission is an independent predictor of hospital and ICU mortality in critically ill patients.

PMID: 24025259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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