Preadmission metformin use and mortality among intensive care patients with diabetes: a cohort study.
Crit Care. 2013 Sep 9;17(5):R192
Authors: Christiansen CF, Johansen MB, Christensen S, O Brien JM, Tønnesen E, Sørensen HT
INTRODUCTION: Metformin has anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that may improve the outcome of critical illness, but clinical data are limited. We examined the impact of preadmission metformin use on mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: We conducted this population-based cohort study among all persons admitted to the 17 ICUs in Northern Denmark (population ~ 1.8 million). We focused on all patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted to the ICUs between January 2005 and December 2011. Through individual-level linkage of population-based medical databases, type 2 diabetes was identified using a previously validated algorithm including hospital diagnoses, filled prescriptions for anti-diabetic drugs, and elevated HbA1c levels. Metformin use was identified by filled prescriptions within 90 days before admission. Covariates included surgery, preadmission morbidity, diabetes duration, and concurrent drug use. We computed 30-day mortality and hazard ratios (HRs) of death using Cox regression adjusted for covariates, both overall and after propensity score matching.
RESULTS: We included 7,404 adult type 2 diabetes patients, representing 14.0% of 52,964 adult patients admitted to the ICUs. Among type 2 diabetes patients, 1,073 (14.5%) filled a prescription for metformin as monotherapy within 90 days before admission and 1,335 (18.0%) received metformin in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs. Thirty-day mortality was 17.6% among metformin monotherapy users, 17.9% among metformin combination therapy users, and 25.0% among metformin non-users. The adjusted HRs were 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.94) for metformin monotherapy users and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.71-0.95) for metformin combination therapy users, compared to non-users. Propensity-score-matched analyses yielded the same results. The association was evident across most subgroups of medical and surgical ICU patients, but most pronounced in elderly patients and in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Former metformin use was not associated with decreased mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Preadmission metformin use was associated with reduced 30-day mortality among medical and surgical intensive care patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMID: 24018017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]