Prophylaxis of Thromboembolic Events in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome (May).
Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Apr 23;
Authors: Pincus KJ, Hynicka LM
OBJECTIVE:To review published literature regarding use of strategies to prevent thrombotic events in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS).DATA SOURCES:The MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were queried from 1980 to December 2012 for articles in English using the search terms ne phrotic syndrome, thrombosis, thromboembolism, anticoagulation, warfarin, heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin, statin, atorva statin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, aspirin, direct thrombin inhibitor, rivaroxaban, argatroban, lepirudin, bivalirudin, dabigatran, factor Xa inhibitor, fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, and prasugrel.STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:All relevant original studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, guidelines, and review articles were assessed for inclusion. References from pertinent articles were examined for additional content not found during the initial search.DATA SYNTHESIS:NS leads to multiple complications, including hypercoagulability. A small prospective cohort study used enoxaparin for primary prophylaxis and demonstrated successful prevention of thrombotic events with minimal adverse events. Additional information has come in the form of decision analyses, which show potential decreased morbidity and mortality when primary prophylaxis for thrombotic events is used; however, all data have numerous limitations. Other strategies for thrombus prevention, including statins and antiplatelet agents, also have been investigated.CONCLUSIONS:When patients with NS are admitted to the hospital, develop an acute medical illness, or acquire an additional thrombotic events risk factor such as surgery, active malignancy, or pregnancy, consideration for primary pharmacologic prophylaxis with appropriately dosed low-molecular-weight heparin or other indicated anticoagulant should include the potential for increased thrombotic events risk in this patient population. Consideration may also be given to the use of primary pharmacologic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin or oral vitamin K antagonist in patients with membranous nephropathy once the albumin level drops below 2.0-2.5 g/dL. Short-term use of pharmacologic prophylaxis during the first 6 months following diagnosis warrants further investigation.
PMID: 23613095 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]