Has the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance?: a 10-year time series analysis.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Nov;56(11):5655-60
Authors: Wood JB, Smith DB, Baker EH, Brecher SM, Gupta K
There are an increasing number of indications for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use, including skin and soft tissue infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Assessing the relationship between rates of use and antibiotic resistance is important for maintaining the expected efficacy of this drug for guideline-recommended conditions. Using interrupted time series analysis, we aimed to determine whether the 2005 emergence of CA-MRSA and recommendations of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as the preferred therapy were associated with changes in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and susceptibility rates. The data from all VA Boston Health Care System facilities, including 118,863 inpatient admissions, 6,272,661 outpatient clinic visits, and 10,138 isolates were collected over a 10-year period. There was a significant (P = 0.02) increase in trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prescriptions in the post-CA-MRSA period (1,605/year) compared to the pre-CA-MRSA period (1,538/year). Although the overall susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased over the study period, the rate of change in the pre- versus the post-CA-MRSA period was not significantly different. The changes in susceptibility rates of S. aureus to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and to methicillin were also not significantly different. The CA-MRSA period is associated with a significant increase in use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but not with significant changes in the rates of susceptibilities among clinical isolates. There is also no evidence for selection of organisms with increased resistance to other antimicrobials in relation to increased trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use.
PMID: 22908161 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]