d-Dimer and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index in relation to right ventricular function.
Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Nov 12;
Authors: Rydman R, Söderberg M, Larsen F, Alam M, Caidahl K
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) involvement in pulmonary embolism (PE) is an ominous sign. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which the d-dimer level or simplified PE severity index (sPESI) indicates RV dysfunction in patients with preserved systemic arterial pressure. METHODS: Right ventricular function was studied in 34 consecutive patients with acute nonmassive PE by echocardiography including Doppler tissue imaging within 24 hours after arrival to the hospital. d-Dimer and sPESI were assessed upon arrival. RESULTS: d-Dimer correlated with RV pressure (R(s), 0.60; P < .001) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; R(s), 0.68; P < .0001) and tended to be related to myocardial performance index (MPI; R(s), 0.31; P = .067). Compared to a level less than 3.0 mg/L, patients with d-dimer 3.0 mg/L or higher had lower systolic tricuspid annular velocity (11.3 ± 2.7 vs 13.5 ± 2.7 cm/s; P < .05), a prolonged MPI (0.8 ± 0.3 vs 0.5 ± 0.2; P < .01), increased RV pressure (58 ± 13 vs 37 ± 12 mm Hg; P < .001), and increased PVR (3.3 ± 1.1 vs 1.8 ± 0.4 Woods units; P < .001). Patients in the high-risk sPESI group had higher filling pressure than those in the low risk sPESI group. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute stage of PE, a d-dimer level 3 mg/L or higher may identify nonmassive PE patients with RV dysfunction and thereby help to determine their risk profile. We found no additional value for sPESI in this context.
PMID: 23154103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]