Oxycodone clearance is markedly reduced with advancing age: a population pharmacokinetic study.
Br J Anaesth. 2012 Mar;108(3):491-8
Authors: Saari TI, Ihmsen H, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT, Schwilden H
BACKGROUND: Oxycodone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist, the global use of which has increased vigorously during the past decade. The pharmacokinetic data of oxycodone available for elderly are limited, and there appear to be only little data on the population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone.
METHODS: We analysed 1272 plasma oxycodone samples of 77 individuals (range of age 19-89 yr) with non-linear mixed effect modelling. Inter- and intra-individual variability of the model was estimated for clearances and distribution volumes. The effect of covariates was studied with simulations.
RESULTS: Data were best described with a two-compartment linear model. Lean body mass and age were found to be significant covariates for elimination clearance and the volume of the central compartment. The population estimates of elimination clearance, volume of the central compartment, and the volume of distribution at steady state for a reference individual (male 35 yr, 70 kg, 170 cm) were 51.0 litre h(-1), 134, and 258 litres, respectively. The elimination half-life of oxycodone showed an age-dependent increase. The context-sensitive half-time at steady state increased from 3.8 to 4.6 h between the age of 25 and 85 yr, respectively. Simulations of repetitive bolus dosing showed a 20% increase in oxycodone concentration in the elderly.
CONCLUSIONS: Age was found to be a significant covariate for oxycodone pharmacokinetics. In elderly patients, dosing should therefore be reduced and carefully titrated to avoid considerable accumulation of oxycodone and potentially hazardous side-effects.
PMID: 22201184 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]