Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for heart failure.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011 Nov 14;
Authors: Richards AM
Introduction: Although mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are indicated in systolic heart failure, they are underprescribed in patients with appropriate indications for their prescription and often used in those in whom the evidence for probable benefit is scant. The rate of adverse events in practice has exceeded that foreshadowed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). With the recent publication of the landmark therapeutic trial (EMPHASIS), it is timely to review the appropriate use of these agents in heart failure. Areas covered: This review addresses the pathophysiological importance of MR activation in heart failure and summarizes pivotal RCTs of MR antagonists in heart failure. Expert opinion: MR antagonism reduces mortality and morbidity in heart failure with reduced systolic function in severe chronic disease, in heart failure complicating myocardial infarction and also in those with impaired systolic function (but only mild symptoms). Evidence for benefits in a significant proportion of ?real-life? patients with heart failure, including those with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, is lacking. MR antagonism is an important part of the pharmaceutical armamentarium in managing heart failure but must be prescribed with careful case selection, taking note of the evidence of where risks are acceptable and benefits are likely.
PMID: 22082128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]