Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: risk factors for mortality in two urban centres in Latin America.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2011 Jan;103(1):20-4
Authors: Morales Uribe CH, Sierra Sierra S, Hernández Hernández AM, Arango Durango AF, López GA
OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in two major Latin American hospitals; presenting its main causes, treatment, and prognosis, while exploring some risk factors associated with death.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred and sixty four patients were admitted into any of the 2 hospitals and were at least 15 years of age. Some variables demographics, clinics and treatment were studied. The association between those variables and the death were explored.
RESULTS: Mean age was 57.9 years; the men:women ratio was 1.4:1. Three hundred and fifty nine patients (77.3%) presented as outpatients and 105 patients (22.6%) were inpatients presenting with UGIB. 71.6% of patients had an upper GI endoscopy within 24 hours. The main causes of bleeding were peptic ulcer (190 patients, 41%), erosive disease (162 patients, 34.9%) and variceal bleeding (47 patients, 10.1%). Forty four patients died (9.5%). Bleeding as an inpatient has a higher mortality risk than does bleeding as an outpatient (RR 2.4 IC 95% 1.2-4.6). An increasing number of comorbidities such as those described in the Rockall Score are also associated with a higher risk of dying (RR 2.5 IC 95% 1.1-5.4).
CONCLUSION: UGIB as an inpatient and the presence of comorbidities should alert the clinician in identifying patients at higher risk of a fatal outcome, these patients should have a more aggressive management and be entitled to an early intervention.
PMID: 21341933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]