Meningitis in adult patients with a negative direct cerebrospinal fluid examination: value of cytochemical markers for differential diagnosis.
Crit Care. 2011 Jun 6;15(3):R136
Authors: Viallon A, Desseigne N, Marjollet O, Birynczyk A, Belin M, Guyomarch S, Borg J, Pozetto B, Bertrand JC, Zeni F
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the ability of various parameters commonly used for the diagnosis of acute meningitis to differentiate between bacterial and viral meningitis, in adult patients with a negative direct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. METHODS: This was a prospective study, started in 1997, including all patients admitted to the emergency unit with acute meningitis and a negative direct CSF examination. Serum and CSF samples were taken immediately on admission. The patients were divided into two groups according to the type of meningitis: bacterial (BM; group I) or viral (VM; group II). The CSF parameters investigated were cytology, protein, glucose and lactate, the serum parameters evaluated being C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. CSF/serum glucose and lactate ratios were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 254 patients presenting meningitis with a negative direct CSF examination, 35 had BM and 181 VM. The most highly discriminative parameters for the differential diagnosis of BM proved to be CSF lactate, with a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 92%, a negative predictive value of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 82 % at a diagnostic cut-off level of 3.8 mmol/L (AUC 0.96, 95% CI [0.95 to 1]) and serum procalcitonin, with a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 100%, a negative predictive value of 100 %, a positive predictive value of 97 % at a diagnostic cut-off level of 0.28 ng/mL (AUC 0.99, 95% CI [0.99 to 1]). CONCLUSIONS: Serum procalcitonin and CSF lactate concentrations appear to be the most highly discriminative parameters for the differential diagnosis of BM and VM.
PMID: 21645387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]