Acute kidney injury in hospitalized HIV-infected patients: a cohort analysis.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011 May 4;
Authors: Lopes JA, Melo MJ, Viegas A, Raimundo M, Câmara I, Antunes F, Gomes da Costa A
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era has not been extensively addressed. The aim of the present study was to analyze the incidence, etiology, risk factors and the impact of AKI on in-hospital mortality in this population. METHODS: A total of 489 HIV-infected patients hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Hospital de Santa Maria (Lisbon, Portugal) between January 2005 and December 2007 were retrospectively studied. AKI was defined by 'Risk Injury Failure Loss of kidney function End-stage kidney disease'(RIFLE) criteria based on serum creatinine. Comparisons between patients with and without AKI were performed using the Student's t-test or the ?2 test. Logistic regression method was used to determine predictors of AKI and in-hospital mortality. A two-tailed P-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (18%) had AKI within the hospitalization period. The most common etiologies of AKI were sepsis (59%), nephrotoxic drug administration (37.5%), volume depletion (21.6%) and radiocontrast use (20.5%). Preexisting hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-5.6, P = 0.04], acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6, P = 0.02), sepsis (adjusted OR 23, 95% CI 11-45.3, P < 0.001) and nephrotoxic drug administration (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.8, P = 0.004) were risk factors of AKI. Patients with AKI had higher in-hospital mortality than patients without AKI (27.3 versus 8%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, AKI was a risk factor of in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: AKI occurred in 18% of hospitalized HIV-infected patients and it was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality.
PMID: 21543659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]