New Challenges in the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Central Venous Catheter-Related Infections.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Apr;32(2):139-150
Authors: Timsit JF, Dubois Y, Minet C, Bonadona A, Lugosi M, Ara-Somohano C, Hamidfar-Roy R, Schwebel C
Catheters are the leading source of bloodstream infections in critically ill patients. Because the clinical signs of infection are nonspecific, such infections are overly suspected, which results in unnecessary removal of catheters. A conservative approach might be attempted in mild infections, whereas catheters should always be removed in cases of severe sepsis or septic shock. Nowadays, comprehensive unit-based improvement programs are effective to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). Rates of CR-BSI higher than 2 per 1000 catheter-days are no longer acceptable. A locally adapted checklist of preventive measures should include cutaneous antisepsis with alcoholic preparation, maximal barrier precaution, strict policy of catheter maintenance, and ablation of useless catheters. Antiseptic dressings and, to a lesser extent, antimicrobial-coated catheters, might be added to the prevention strategies if the level of infections remains high despite implementation of a prevention program. In the case of CR-BSI in intensive care units (ICUs), the catheter should be removed. In the case of persistence of fever or positive blood cultures after 3 days, inadequate antibiotic therapy, endocarditis, or thrombophlebitis should be ruled out.
PMID: 21506050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]