Urine output on an intensive care unit: case-control study.
Authors: Solomon AW, Kirwan CJ, Alexander ND, Nimako K, Jurukov A, Forth RJ, Rahman TM,
OBJECTIVE: To compare urine output between junior doctors in an intensive care unit and the patients for whom they are responsible. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: General intensive care unit in a tertiary referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 18 junior doctors responsible for clerking patients on weekday day shifts in the unit from 23 March to 23 April 2009 volunteered as "cases." Controls were the patients in the unit clerked by those doctors. Exclusion criteria (for both groups) were pregnancy, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and renal replacement therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oliguria (defined as mean urine output <0.5 ml/kg/hour over six or more hours of measurement) and urine output (in ml/kg/hour) as a continuous variable. RESULTS: Doctors were classed as oliguric and "at risk" of acute kidney injury on 19 (22%) of 87 shifts in which urine output was measured, and oliguric to the point of being "in injury" on one (1%) further shift. Data were available for 208 of 209 controls matched to cases in the data collection period; 13 of these were excluded because the control was receiving renal replacement therapy. Doctors were more likely to be oliguric than their patients (odds ratio 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 3.68, P=0.03). For each additional 1 ml/kg/hour mean urine output, the odds ratio for being a case rather than a control was 0.27 (0.12 to 0.58, P=0.001). Mortality among doctors was astonishingly low, at 0% (0% to 18%). CONCLUSIONS: Managing our own fluid balance is more difficult than managing it in our patients. We should drink more water. Modifications to the criteria for acute kidney injury could be needed for the assessment of junior doctors in an intensive care unit.
PMID: 21156738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]