Nonacute coronary syndrome anginal chest pain.
Med Clin North Am. 2010 Mar;94(2):201-16
Authors: Agarwal M, Mehta PK, Bairey Merz CN
Anginal chest pain is one of the most common complaints in the outpatient setting. While much of the focus has been on identifying obstructive atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) as the cause of anginal chest pain, it is clear that microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) can also cause anginal chest pain as a manifestation of ischemic heart disease, and carries an increased cardiovascular risk. Epicardial coronary vasospasm, aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, congenital coronary anomalies, mitral valve prolapse, and abnormal cardiac nociception can also present as angina of cardiac origin. For nonacute coronary syndrome (ACS) stable chest pain, exercise treadmill testing (ETT) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of ischemia and cardiac risk stratification; however, in certain subsets of patients, such as women, ETT has a lower sensitivity and specificity for identifying obstructive CAD. When combined with an imaging modality, such as nuclear perfusion or echocardiography testing, the sensitivity and specificity of stress testing for detection of obstructive CAD improves significantly. Advancements in stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging enables detection of perfusion abnormalities in a specific coronary artery territory, as well as subendocardial ischemia associated with MCD. Coronary computed tomography angiography enables visual assessment of obstructive CAD, albeit with a higher radiation dose. Invasive coronary angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of obstructive lesions that cause medically refractory stable angina. Furthermore, in patients with normal coronary angiograms, the addition of coronary reactivity testing can help diagnose endothelial-dependent and -independent microvascular dysfunction. Lifestyle modification and pharmacologic intervention remains the cornerstone of therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with stable angina. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of stable, non-ACS anginal chest pain.
PMID: 20380951 [PubMed - in process]