Mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(196):111-30
Authors: Nolin TD, Himmelfarb J
Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a common complication of several medications and diagnostic agents. It is seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings with variable presentations ranging from mild, reversible injury to advanced kidney disease. Manifestations of drug-induced nephrotoxicity include acid-base abnormalities, electrolyte imbalances, urine sediment abnormalities, proteinuria, pyuria, hematuria, and, most commonly, a decline in the glomerular filtration rate. The mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity may differ between various drugs or drug classes, and they are generally categorized based on the histological component of the kidney that is affected. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, radiocontrast media, conventional nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, amphotericin B, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been frequently implicated. This chapter reviews the clinical presentation and basic mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
PMID: 20020261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]