Diagnosis and management of acute cholangitis.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Sep;6(9):533-41
Authors: Lee JG
Bacterial infection that occurs in the setting of biliary obstruction can lead to acute cholangitis, a condition characterized by fever, abdominal pain and jaundice. Choledocholithiasis is the most common cause of acute cholangitis and is often associated with bacterial infection and colonization in addition to biliary obstruction. Iatrogenic introduction of bacteria into the biliary system most commonly occurs during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with biliary obstruction. The majority of patients with acute cholangitis respond to antibiotic therapy, but endoscopic biliary drainage is ultimately required to treat the underlying obstruction. Acute cholangitis is often diagnosed using the clinical Charcot triad criteria; however, recommendations from an international consensus meeting in Tokyo produced the most comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute cholangitis. These guidelines enable a more accurate diagnosis of acute cholangitis than do earlier methods, and they facilitate the classification of disease as mild, moderate or severe. Although these guidelines represent a notable advance toward defining a universally accepted consensus for the definition of acute cholangitis, they have several limitations. This Review discusses current recommendations for the diagnosis of acute cholangitis and addresses the advantages and disadvantages of different modalities for the treatment of this disease.
PMID: 19652653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]