Reduction of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension.
Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Nov 19;
Authors: Acelajado MC, Calhoun DA, Oparil S
Background: Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem, and patients with resistant hypertension have increased cardiovascular risk. It is a subset of the hypertensive population that is little studied and poorly characterized. Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss resistant hypertension, its recognition and diagnostic workup and management, and to present current data about the disease from the latest research. Methods: We define resistant hypertension and differentiate it from pseudoresistance. We identify diagnostic tests that may be done on patients with resistant hypertension. Last, we discuss therapeutic approaches to resistant hypertension, focusing on pharmacological treatment, and present an algorithm that may be used by the clinician in treating a patient with resistant hypertension. Conclusion: Resistant hypertension is a significant clinical problem commonly encountered by clinicians. Patients with resistant hypertension have increased cardiovascular risk. In evaluating for resistant hypertension, it is important to recognize elements that contribute to pseudoresistance to treatment. Secondary causes of hypertension are common in patients with resistant hypertension and should be included in the diagnostic workup. Pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension entails choosing medications with complementary mechanisms of action, optimizing diuretic use, and considering the use of mineralocorticoid antagonists as an add-on agent to the antihypertensive regimen.
PMID: 19925047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]