Indications for thrombolysis in deep venous thrombosis.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009 Aug;38(2):192-8
Authors: Gogalniceanu P, Johnston CJ, Khalid U, Holt PJ, Hincliffe R, Loftus IM, Thompson MM
OBJECTIVES: Deep venous thromboses (DVTs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the general and inpatient population. Current anticoagulation therapy is efficient in reducing thrombus propagation but does not contribute to clot lysis or prevention of post-thrombotic limb syndrome. Catheter directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an alternative method for treating DVTs but there is no consensus regarding indications for its use. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Cochrane library were searched for all articles on deep vein thrombosis and thrombolysis. REVIEW METHOD: Articles presenting data on DVT thrombolysis, DVT anticoagulation, mechanical thrombectomy, venous stenting and May-Thurner's syndrome were considered for inclusion in the review. RESULTS: CDT reduced clot burden, DVT recurrence and may prevent the formation of post-thrombotic syndrome. Indications for its use include younger individuals with a long life expectancy and few co-morbidities, limb-threatening thromboses and proximal ilio-femoral DVTs. There is a marked lack of randomised controlled trials comparing CDT-related mortality and long term outcomes compared to anticoagulation alone. The effectiveness of combined pharmaco-mechanic thrombectomy, although promising, need to be further investigated, as is the role of caval filters in preventing DVT-associated pulmonary emboli. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the outcome of CDT in DVT management are encouraging in selected patient cohorts, but further evidence is required to establish longer term benefits and cost-effectiveness.
PMID: 19427243 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]