Pulmonary complications of cirrhosis.
Med Clin North Am. 2009 Jul;93(4):871-83
Authors: Singh C, Sager JS
Advanced liver disease and portal hypertension produce various intrathoracic complications that involve the pleural space, the lung parenchyma, and the pulmonary circulation. Dyspnea and arterial hypoxemia are the most common symptoms and signs in patients with such complications. This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and hepatic hydrothorax. All are pulmonary processes associated with end-stage liver disease that lead to significant morbidity and affect the quality of life of patients who are suffering from liver cirrhosis.
PMID: 19577119 [PubMed - in process]