Stress-induced ulcer bleeding in critically ill patients.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;38(2):245-65
Authors: Ali T, Harty RF
Increased knowledge of risk factors and improved ICU care has decreased the incidence of stress-related bleeding. Not all critically ill patients need prophylaxis for SRMD and withholding such prophylaxis in suitable low-risk candidates is a reasonable and cost-effective approach. Mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours and coagulopathy are the main risk factors for stress-induced upper GI bleeding. Although intravenous H2RAs can prevent clinically important bleeding, their benefits seem to be limited by the rapid development of tolerance. The availability of intravenous formulations of PPIs makes it possible to critically compare their prophylactic efficacy and safety to different classes of acid-suppressive agents, such as H2RAs, in critically ill patients. The appropriate dose of PPI and the role of newer PPI formulations need to be further defined along with proposed guidelines for the use of intravenous and oral/enteral formulations of PPIs in patients at risk for stress-related mucosal damage.
PMID: 19446257 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]