Acetylcysteine and non-ionic isosmolar contrast-induced nephropathy--a randomized controlled study.
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Jun 23;
Authors: Ferrario F, Barone MT, Landoni G, Genderini A, Heidemperger M, Trezzi M, Piccaluga E, Danna P, Scorza D
Introduction. Intravenous administration of saline and non-ionic isosmolar contrast media significantly reduces the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy, one of the most common causes of acute renal failure. Results with oral N-acetylcysteine are conflicting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prophylactic role of N-acetylcysteine in patients with stable chronic renal failure undergoing coronary and/or peripheral angiography and/or angioplasty. METHODS: We randomized 200 elective, consecutive patients (mean age 74.9 +/- 7.3 years; 65% male, 25% diabetics) with basal creatinine clearance </=55 ml/min to receive oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg bid the day before and the day of the procedure plus saline i.v. 0.9% 1 ml/kg/h 12-24 h before and 24 h after the procedure, n = 99) or placebo and saline at the same time intervals, n = 101. The contrast medium was non-ionic isosmolar (Iodixanol, Visipaque Amersham Health). Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as an increase in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dl or >25% within 3 days after the procedure. Serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48 and 72 h after the procedure. RESULTS: Contrast-induced nephropathy was 8/99 (8.1%) in the N-acetylcysteine group versus 6/101 (5.9%) in the placebo group, P = 0.6. No difference was noted in high-risk subgroups such as diabetics (4/25 versus 2/25 P = 0.4) and those with serum creatinine clearance <42.3 ml/min (5/54 versus 4/48; P = 0.9). CONCLUSION: In our experience, N-acetylcysteine did not prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients receiving isosmolar (iodixanol) contrast media and adequate hydration.
PMID: 19549691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]