Hypertension and cardiac failure in its various forms.
Med Clin North Am. 2009 May;93(3):665-80
Authors: Gaddam KK, Verma A, Thompson M, Amin R, Ventura H
Aging population and poorly controlled hypertension contribute to an ever-increasing prevalence of heart failure. Two different phenotypes of heart failure, namely, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, are being increasingly recognized. However, they may not necessarily be separate processes and may actually represent a continuum. Nevertheless, either form of heart failure is associated with very high morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of patients who have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. However, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is less well understood and no convincing evidence-based treatment options are available in treating these patients. Given the poor prognosis with either form of heart failure, it is imperative to recognize and treat hypertension early.
PMID: 19427498 [PubMed - in process]