Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Nosocomial Transmission of Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1) Virus.
JAMA. 2009 Mar 2;
Authors: Gooskens J, Jonges M, Claas EC, Meijer A, van den Broek PJ, Kroes AC
CONTEXT: The sudden emergence and rapid spread of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses with neuraminidase (NA) gene H274Y amino acid substitution is the hallmark of global seasonal influenza since January 2008. Viruses carrying this mutation are widely presumed to exhibit attenuated pathogenicity, compromised transmission, and reduced lethality. OBJECTIVE: To investigate nosocomial viral transmission in a cluster of patients with influenza A(H1N1) virus infection.Design, Setting, and PATIENTS: Descriptive outbreak investigation of 2 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and an elderly patient who developed hospital-acquired influenza A virus infection following exposure to an index patient with community-acquired H274Y-mutated influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in a medical ward at a Dutch university hospital in February 2008. The investigation included a review of the medical records, influenza virus polymerase chain reaction and culture, phenotypic oseltamivir and zanamivir susceptibility determination, and hemagglutinin chain 1 (HA(1)) gene and NA gene sequence analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Phylogenetic relationship of patient cluster influenza A(H1N1) viruses and other 2007-2008 seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses. RESULTS: Viral HA(1) and NA gene sequence analysis from the 4 patients revealed indistinguishable nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic clustering of H274Y-mutated, oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) virus, confirming nosocomial transmission. Influenza virus pneumonia (3 patients) and attributable mortality (2 patients) during active infection was observed in patients with lymphocytopenia at onset. CONCLUSION: Seasonal oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses with NA gene H274Y mutation are transmitted and retain significant pathogenicity and lethality in high-risk patients.Published online March 2, 2009 (doi:10.1001/jama.2009.297).
PMID: 19255111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]