Measuring impedance in congestive heart failure: current options and clinical applications.
Am Heart J. 2009 Mar;157(3):402-11
Authors: Tang WH, Tong W
Measurement of impedance is becoming increasingly available in the clinical setting as a tool for assessing hemodynamics and volume status in patients with heart failure. The 2 major categories of impedance assessment are the band electrode method and the implanted device lead method. The exact sources of the impedance signal are complex and can be influenced by physiologic effects such as blood volume, fluid, and positioning. This article provides a critical review of our current understanding and promises of impedance measurements, the techniques that have evolved, as well as the evidence and limitations regarding their clinical applications in the setting of heart failure management.
PMID: 19249408 [PubMed - in process]