Diagnostic and prognostic value of rapid pacing stress echocardiography for the detection of coronary artery disease: influence of pacing mode and concomitant antiischemic therapy (final results of multicenter study Pol-RAPSE).
Echocardiography. 2008 Sep;25(8):827-34
Authors: P?o?ska-Gosciniak E, Kleinrok A, Gackowski A, Gasior Z, Kowalik I, Kornacewicz-Jach Z, Gozdzik A, Kasprzak JD
AIM: Assessment of safety, diagnostic, and prognostic value of a stress echocardiography protocol based on rapid pacing in patients with implanted permanent pacemakers according to the pacing mode (AAI/DDD or VVI) and concomitant antiischemic therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 149 rapid pacing stress echo tests were performed in 100 patients (33 females, 67 males, aged 47-79, mean 65 +/- 8 years), utilizing previously implanted permanent pacemakers. Left ventricular segmental contractility was assessed at rest, during pacing at the rate of 100/minutes and then at 85% of maximal age-predicted heart rate. Each pacing stage lasted for 3 minutes. The test was performed using only VVI pacing mode in 27 patients in whom atrial pacing was not possible. In the remaining 73 patients AAI/DDD pacing mode was initially used in all 73 patients and followed by VVI pacing in 49 patients. Angiographic coronary stenosis of at least 50% was considered significant. RESULTS: No severe adverse effects were observed. Mean duration of the test was 7 +/- 2 minutes for VVI pacing and 10 +/- 2 minutes for both AAI/DDD and VVI pacing. Among 149 tests performed, AAI/DDD mode was used in 73 (49%), while in VVI mode was used in 76 (51%) tests. Significant increase in heart rate comparing to baseline was achieved[[68/minutes vs. 129/minutes (P < 00001)]], also in patients treated with beta-blockers[[69/minutes vs. 129/minutes (P < 00001)]], whereas, blood pressure remained unchanged between rest and rapid pacing stage. Wall motion score index increased significantly (from 1.32 vs. 1.49 in AAI/DDD to 1.36 vs. 1.65 in VVI mode). Among all 149 tests, 89 (60%) were considered positive, 57 (38%) negative, and 3 (2%) - nondiagnostic. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values for significant coronary stenosis were respectively: 91%, 75%, 83%, 81%, and 88%. For AAI/DDD mode the above values were: 91%, 81%, 86%, 82%, 91%, while for VVI mode they were: 91%, 68%, 80%, 80%, 84% (ns). In patients treated with beta-blockers test accuracy was - 79%., with ACE inhibitors - 84%, and with nitrates - 93%. During 1-year follow-up 5 (5%) cardiac deaths and 9 (9,1%) myocardial infarctions occurred. The risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death was significantly higher in patients with positive comparing to negative result of RAPSE test. Complications hazard ratio associated with positive result of RAPSE was 13.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-106.0, P + 0.0133) for AAI/DDD mode and 7.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-60.9, P + 0.00472) for VVI mode. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid pacing stress echo test using permanent pacemaker is a rapid and safe diagnostic technique. The accuracy is good for both pacing modes, including tests performed in patients treated with beta-blockers. The test can be utilized as a technique of choice in noninvasive diagnostics of coronary disease and prognostic assessment in patients with permanent pacemakers.
PMID: 18986411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]