Clinical relevance of non-cardiac determinants of natriuretic peptide levels.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46(11):1515-23
Authors: Passino C, Poletti R, Fontana M, Vergaro G, Prontera C, Gabutti A, Giannoni A, Emdin M, Clerico A
There is evidence that natriuretic peptide (namely atrial and/or B-type natriuretic peptides) plasma concentration may be elevated in many clinical conditions besides cardiovascular diseases, the most frequent being lung diseases, renal and liver failure, acute cerebrovascular events, acute and chronic inflammatory diseases and certain metabolic and endocrine disorders. In general, increased circulating levels of natriuretic peptides (compared to the normal range of a healthy population) may be considered expression of activation of the neuro-endocrine system, which can be the cause or consequence of cardiac stressor events. Furthermore, some variables, such as gender and obesity, may affect natriuretic peptide secretion and plasma concentration by completely extra-cardiac mechanisms. Increased expression of the natriuretic peptide system, counteracting neuro-hormonal and immunological activation, may occur in many clinical conditions, as witnessed by the considerable number of diseases in which the natriuretic peptide system has been found to be altered. Several studies have demonstrated that higher circulating levels of natriuretic peptides represent a strong independent risk factor for major cardiovascular complications and/or death, even in extra-cardiac diseases. Because several of these diseases may be present in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, the possible influence on diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of natriuretic peptides in heart failure will be discussed.
PMID: 19012517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]