Catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients: the role of the central venous catheter in prevention and therapy.
Int J Artif Organs. 2008 Sep;31(9):827-33
Authors: Troidle L, Finkelstein FO
Infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. Infections in hemodialysis patients are strongly associated with the use of an indwelling central venous catheter. S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Gram-negative rods account for the majority of these infections. The outcome of catheter-related bacteremia depends on appropriate antibiotic therapy and management of the hemodialysis catheter. Most studies note that there is no difference in outcome if the catheter is changed over a guidewire in addition to antibiotic therapy or if the catheter is completely removed and reinserted at a later date. However, bacteremia with certain organisms, particularly S. aureus, is associated with complications. Thus, the data suggests that the catheter needs to be promptly removed in patients developing S. aureus bacteremia.Bacterial biofilm likely has a critical role in the pathogenesis of these infections. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated both a reduction in infection rate with the use of antibiotic catheter locks as well as a reduction in the production of or eradication of bacterial biofilm. Future studies ought to target, firstly, a reduction in the reliance on central venous catheters; and secondly, the formulation of practical strategies to reduce patient risk for developing catheter-related bacteremia.
PMID: 18924095 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]